Chemistry

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Lab Manual
Table of Contents

1  Working Safely in the Lab
A. Preparing for Laboratory Work   B. Handling Chemicals Safely   C. Heating Chemicals Safely           D. Waste Disposal         E. Safety Quiz           F. Laboratory Equipment

2 Measurement and Significant Figures
A. Measuring Length     B. Measuring Volume      C. Measuring Mass       D. Scientific Notation

3 Conversion Factors in Calculations
A. Rounding Off       B. Significant Figures in Calculations     C. Conversion Factors for Length   
D. Conversion Factors for Volume     E. Conversion Factors for Mass        F. Percent by Mass

4 Density and Specific Gravity
A. Density of A Solid    B. Density of a Liquid     C. Specific Gravity     D. Graphing Mass and Volume

5 Atomic Structure
A. Physical Properties of Elements     B. Periodic Table      C. Subatomic Particles     D. Isotopes

6 Electronic Arrangement and Periodic Properties
A. Flame Tests      B. Drawing Models of Atoms     C. Graphing a Periodic Property

7 Nuclear Radiation
A. Background Count  B. Radioactive Sources   C. Effect of Shielding, Time and Distance

8 Compounds and Their Formulas
A. Electron Dot Structures    B. Ionic Compounds and Formulas      C. Ionic Charges with Transition Metals  D. Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions     E. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds 

9 Chemical Reactions and Equations
A. The laboratory Burner  B. Magnesium and Oxygen   C. Zinc and Copper (II) Sulfate 
D. Metals and HCl   E. Reactions of Ionic Compounds   F. Sodium Carbonate and HCl

10 Moles and Chemical Formulas
A. Moles and Molar Mass     B. Finding the Simplest Formula

11 Formula of a Hydrate
A. Copper(II) Sulfate •5H2O, A Hydrate      B. Formula of a Hydrate

12 Energy and Matter
A. Measuring Temperature         B. A Heating Curve for Water     C. Energy in Changes of State    
D. Food Calories

13 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium
A. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions     B. Rates of Reactions      C. Reversible Reactions

14 Gas Laws: Boyle’s and Charles’
A. Boyle’s Law     B. Charles’ Law

15 Partial Pressures of Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide in Air
A. Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Air     B. Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere   
C. Carbon Dioxide in Expired Air

16 Formation of Solutions
A. Polarity of Solutes and Solvents     B. Rates of Solution   C. Solubility of KNO3

17 Electrolytes and Insoluble Salts
A. Electrolytes and Conductivity     B. Electrolytes in Body Fluids     C. Soluble and Insoluble Salts     D. Testing the Hardness of Water     E. Purification of Water

18 Concentrations of Solutions
A. Percent Water in a Food     B. Concentration of a Sodium Chloride Solution

19 Testing for Cations and Anions
A. Tests for Positive Ions (Cations)     B. Tests for Negative Ions (Anions)
C. Writing the Formulas of Your Unknown Salt     D. Extension Activity: Testing Products for Ions

20 Solutions, Colloids, and Suspensions
A. Identification Tests     B. Dialysis      C. Filtration

21 Acids, Bases, pH, and Buffers
A. pH Color Using Red Cabbage Indicator B. Measurement of pH      C. Effect of Buffers on pH

22 Acid-Base Titrations
A. Acetic Acid in Vinegar     B. Titration of an Antacid

23 Properties of Organic Chemistry
A. Color, Odor, and Physical State     B. Solubility      C. Combustion    D. Summary of Properties

24 Structures and Isomers of Alkanes
A. Structures of Alkanes     B. Isomers    C. Cycloalkanes     

25 Reactions of Hydrocarbons
A. Types of Hydrocarbons     B. Combustion      C. Haloalkanes     D. Bromine Test 
E. Potassium Permanganate (KmnO4) Test      F. Identification of Unknowns

26 Alcohols and Phenols
A. Structures of Alcohols and Phenol     B. Properties of Alcohols and Phenol
C. Ferric Chloride Test     D. Oxidation of Alcohols      E. Identification of Unknown

27 Aldehydes and Ketones
A. Structures of Some Aldehydes and Ketones      B. Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones     
C. Iodoform Test for Methyl Ketones    D. Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones    e. An Unknown

28 Carbohydrates
A. Monosaccharides      B. Disaccharides      C. Polysaccharides

 

 

29 Tests for Carbohydrates
A. Benedict’s Test for Reducing Sugars   B. Seliwanoff’s Test for Ketoses     C. Fermentation Test     D. Iodine Test for Polysaccharides    E. Identifying An Unknown Carbohydrate 
F. Hydrolysis of disaccharides and Polysaccharides
G. Testing Foods for Carbohydrates (Extension Activity)

30 Carboxylic Acids and Esters
A. Carboxylic Acids and Their Salts     B. Esters      C. Saponification

31 Synthesis of Aspirin
A. Preparation of Aspirin  B. Recrystallization    C. Testing Aspirin Products

32 Amines and Amides
A. Structure and Classification of Amines   B. Solubility of Amines in Water
C. Neutralization of Amines with Acids        D. Amides

33 Synthesis of Acetaminophen
A. Synthesis of Acetaminophen     B. Isolating Acetanilide from an Impure Sample

34 Lipids
A. Triglycerides     B. Physical Properties of Some Lipids and Fatty Acids   C. Bromine Test 

35 Saponification: Preparation of Soap
A. Saponification: Preparation of Soap    B. Properties of Soap and Detergents

36 Amino Acids
A. Amino Acids     B. Chromatography of Amino Acids

37 Peptide and Proteins
A. Peptide Bonds     B. Structure of Proteins      C. Denaturation of Proteins
D. Isolation of Casein (Milk Protein)     E. Color Tests for Proteins

38 Enzyme Activity
A. Effect of Enzyme Concentration     B. Effect of Temperature     C. Effect of pH     D. Inhibition  

39 Digestion of Foodstuffs
A. Digestion of Carbohydrates     B. Digestion of Fats      C. Protein Digestion

40 Vitamins
A. Solubility of Vitamins    B. Standardization of Vitamin C    C. Analysis of Vitamin C in Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks   D. Heat Destruction of Vitamin C

41 Analysis of Urine
A. Color, pH and Specific Gravity     B. Electrolytes      C. Glucose     D. Ketone Bodies     
E. Protein     F. Urobilinogen

Appendix
List of Equipment for Student Lockers 
Equipment Available In Laboratory or from Stockroom
Materials Needed for Each Experiment